Major Health Topics:

Cardiovascular Health:
Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada Health Dictionary, 2006

Coronary Heart Disease:
Grobee, D.E. et al. Coffee, caffeine and cardiovascular disease in men. New England Journal of Medicine, 323, 1026-1032, 1990.

Willett, W.C. et al. Coffee consumption and disease in women: a ten-year follow-up. Journal of the American Medical Association, 275, 458-462, 1996

Brown, C.A. et al, Coffee Consumption and the prevalence of CHD in men and women: results from the Scottish Health Study. Journal of Epidemiological Community Health, 47, 171-175, 1993.

Blood Pressure/Hypertension:

Myers, M.G. Effects of caffeine on blood pressure. Archives of Internal Medicine, 148, 1189-1193, 1988.

Wolfgang, C. et al. Habitual Caffeine Intake and the Risk of Hypertension in Women, Journal of the American Medical Association, 2005;294:2330-2335.

Bak, A., Grobee, D., Caffeine, blood pressure, and serum lipids. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 53; 971-975, 1991.

Fried, R.E., et al. The effect of filtered-coffee consumption on plasma lipid levels. Journal of the American Medical Association, 267:811-815, 1992.

Urgert, R. et al. Comparison of effect of coffee and filtered coffee on serum concentrations. British Medical Journal, 313, 1362-1366, 1996.

Heaney, R.P. Effects of caffeine on bone and the calcium economy. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 40, 1263-1270, 2002.

Reproductive Health:

Olsen, J., Cigarette smoking, tea and coffee drinking and subfecundity. American Journal of Epidemiology, 133(7): 734-739, 1991.

Caan, B, Quesenberry, CP, Coats, AO. Differences in fertility associated with caffeinated beverage consumption. American Journal of Public Health, 88(2):270-274. 1998.

Fetal Health:
Wilcox, A. et al. Caffeinated beverages and decreased fertility. Lancet, 2, 1453-1455, 1988.

Hildebrandt, R. Lack of pharmacological active saliva levels of caffeine in breast-fed infants Pediatric Pharmacology, 3, 237-244, 1983.

American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Drugs. Pediatrics, 108, 776-789, 2001.

Helweg-Larsen, K. et al. The Nordic Epidemiological SIDS Study Acta Paediatrica, 88, 5212-527, 1999.

Parkinson’s Disease:

Ross, G.W. Association of coffee and caffeine intake with the risk of Parkinson’s disease. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2000, May 24-31; 283(20): 2674-9.

Willett, W.C. et al. Prospective study of caffeine consumption and risk of Parkinson’s disease in men and women. Annals of Neurology. 2001 July; 50 (1): 56-63.

Schwarzschild, M. A., Caffeinated clues and the promise of adenosine A (2A) antagonists in PD, Neurology 2002. 58;8:1154-1160.


Willett, W.C., et al. Coffee consumption and risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Annals of Internal Medicine. 2004 Jan 6; 140(1):117.

Jousilahti, P. Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus among middle-aged Finnish men and women. Journal of the American Medical Association, 2004 March 10; 291(10):1213-9.


Liver cancer:
Inoue, M. et al. Influence of Coffee Drinking on Subsequent Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Prospective Study in Japan. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 2005, Vol. 97, No. 4, 293-300, 2005.

Breast Cancer:
Nkondjock, A. et al. Coffee consumption and breast cancer risk among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. International Journal of Cancer. 118(1): 103-107, 2006.
Colon cancer:

Tavani, A. et al. Coffee and tea intake and risk of cancers of the colon and rectum. International Journal of Cancer, 73, 193-197, 1997.

Giovannucci, E., et al. Meta-analysis of Coffee Consumption and Risk of Colorectal Cancer. American Journal of Epidemiology. 1 June 1998; 147: 1043 – 1052.

Various Health Topics:

Corrao, G. et al. Coffee, caffeine, and the risk of liver cirrhosis. Annals of Epidemiology, 11, 458-465, 2001.

Gallus, S. et al. Does coffee protect against liver cirrhosis? Annals of Epidemiology, 12, 202-205, 2002.

Leitzmann, M.F. et al. A prospective study of coffee consumption and the risk of symptomatic gallstone disease in men. Journal of the American Medical Association, 281, 2106-2112, 1999.

Leitzmann, M.F. et al. Coffee intake is associated with lower risk of symptomatic gallstone disease in women. Gastroenterology, 123, 1823-1830, 2002.

Karlson, E. W., Coffee consumption and risk of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 2003 Nov; 48(11): 3055-60.

Pagano, R et al. Coffee drinking and prevalence of bronchial asthma. Chest , 94, 386-389, 1988.

Schwartz, J. and Weiss, S.T. Caffeine intake and asthma symptoms. Annals of Epidemiology, 2, 627-635, 1992.

Alzheimer’s disease:
Maia, L. et al. Does caffeine intake protect from Alzheimer’s disease? European Journal of Neurology. 2002 July; 9(4): 377-82.

Lifestyle topics:

Arciero PJ, Gardner AW, Calles-Escandon J, Benowitz NL, Poehlman ET. Effects of caffeine ingestion on NE kinetics, fat oxidation, and energy expenditure in younger and older men. Am J Physiol 1995;268:E1192-8.

Costill DL, Dalsky GP, Fink WJ Effects of caffeine ingestion on metabolism and exercise performance. Journal of Medical Science and Sports. 1978; 10:155-8

Armstrong, L.E. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
2002,12, 189-206

Doherty M, PM Smith, Effects of caffeine ingestion on exercise performance: a meta-analysis. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 14(6): 626-646, 2004.

Brain Activity:
Smith, A.P. and Jones, D.M (Eds.), Handbook of Human Performance, vol. 2. Academic Press, London, pp. 49-72, 1992.

Johnson-Kozlow, M. et al Coffee consumption and cognitive function among older adults. American Journal of Epidemiology, 156, 842-850, 2002.

Lee, K.A. Sleep, 15, 493-498, 1992.